A museum (/mju:’zi:@m/, mew-ZEE-@m) is a building or institution that cares for and displays a collection of objects of artistic, scientific, or historical importance. The largest museums are located in large cities throughout the world, while smaller ones are found in towns and rural areas.
They have a long history, dating back to Ancient Greece. Early museums were private, established by wealthy individuals, and later made public. They may specialize in a single field or represent many disciplines, such as art, archaeology, anthropology and ethnology, science and technology, history, and military history.
Today, there are thousands of museums across the globe in all kinds of locations and sizes. They often offer educational programs, tours and workshops, exhibits, and other services to attract visitors and support their mission.
There are many different types of museums, each with its own goals and objectives. Some are devoted to the preservation and documentation of collections, serving researchers and specialists; others may be more generalist, serving the community.
The museum is the repository of human knowledge and cultural heritage. It aims to promote the knowledge, understanding, and enjoyment of this wealth through exhibits that explore topics of interest and concern to people in their communities.
They are also a place to engage with the natural and physical environment through interdisciplinary programs, lectures, films, music and dance performances, and demonstrations of technology.
Their primary purpose is to preserve and provide access to the arts, culture, and history of a region or nation. They may also serve as a means to promote civic pride, nationalistic endeavour, and other socially desirable goals.
In recent years, the challenge for museum practitioners has been to attract a diverse range of audiences. They have been under pressure to reach those from ‘hard-to-reach’ backgrounds and regions.
A wide variety of factors have influenced their development, including the growth of tourism, societal changes and economic declines, as well as the rise of the internet. These have led to a reappraisal of their role and the definition of their work.
During the last century, the concept of the museum has undergone significant transformation. Originally, they served as a repository of historical artifacts and were designed to be places of spirituality, education and enlightenment. However, in more recent times they have become centers of entertainment and leisure.
They have also been called upon to serve as social hubs that enable democratisation, critical dialogue, and social justice. In response to these demands, they have been encouraged to reposition themselves in order to meet the needs of their communities and the challenges posed by the environment.
As a result, many museums are increasingly redefining their identity. Increasingly, they are developing programmes that challenge existing notions of how to best represent their collections.
For instance, they are increasingly exploring how to best present objects of cultural significance. Moreover, they are finding that they can play an important role in addressing social and environmental issues through their exhibitions and outreach work.