A museum is an institution whose collections are open to the public for study and enjoyment. Depending on the field, museums may be dedicated to art, science, history, or other topics. Museums can be large or small, and they often share the same basic goals of preserving and interpreting cultural heritage. In their earliest days, museum buildings often served as places to display private collections, but later they came to be associated with the academic study of rare items and with public education. Some museums are part of universities or governmental departments, and others are independent.
The word museum traces its roots back to the Greek Mouseion, which was a place of worship for nine sister goddesses that symbolized the arts and sciences. By the time it reached Latin, the term had become museum, and its meaning was extended to include a seat for the Muses and a place of learning in general. Today, the museums that hold collections of treasured objects attract many visitors, and their importance to society is widely recognized.
Museums can be found in all corners of the globe and serve a variety of purposes. Some are known for their carefully curated exhibits that transcend the usual museum experience. Others use their collections to teach students about different cultures, making them an invaluable source of information and knowledge for people of all ages. Still others work to encourage civic pride and nurture a sense of place, often in areas that have struggled economically.
Most museums are governed by a board of trustees and a director, with a staff responsible for the hands-on care and arrangement of the collection. The larger museums usually have a research division and an education department that are involved with studies of the museum’s materials. Most museums also have a budget that helps fund the work of the museum and ensures it remains open to the public.
In order to preserve the cultural heritage of a nation, museum professionals work to gather and arrange specimens for preservation and interpretation. This is a complex and often challenging task that requires the cooperation of multiple departments. Various professional organizations exist to provide guidance in the fields of museum management and research.
The definition of museum can vary greatly, but most professional museum associations agree that the museums they represent are non-profit, permanent institutions open to the public that acquire, conserve, research, preserve, communicate and exhibit the tangible and intangible heritage of humanity and its environment for the purposes of study, education and enjoyment. Whether they are dedicated to the Alamo or to a local historic district, museums are an essential component of modern societies. Some museums have even moved beyond traditional boundaries and opened themselves up to the community at large by offering services such as education, recreation and health. As the world continues to change, it is imperative that museum professionals stay informed about the changes and adapt their facilities accordingly. To do so, they must define their mission clearly and consistently.